Volume 20, Issue 9 (December 2022)                   Nursing and Midwifery Journal 2022, 20(9): 741-754 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

URL: http://unmf.umsu.ac.ir/article-1-4716-en.html
1- MSc student in psychiatric nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran
2- Assistant Professor of Nursing, Patient Safety Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Corresponding Author) , Yasermoradi1045@yahoo.com
3- Nursing Instructor, Patient Safety Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran
4- Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
Abstract:   (567 Views)
Background & Aims: Workplace violence is one of the occupational hazards that are increasingly growing worldwide. Long shifts, intense stress, isolated and uncontrolled environments, direct contact with anxious patients, and the nature of work, all put emergency medical staff at risk of workplace violence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of workplace violence, the ways of encounter it and its consequences on emergency medical staff of West Azerbaijan province, Iran.
Materials & Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in West Azerbaijan province, Iran .in 2022. Four hundred medical emergency staff were enrolled in the study through convenience sampling method. The data were collected using a standard electronical questionnaire about workplace violence in the health department. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 26. Descriptive statistics (absolute frequency, mean, standard deviation, and Average percentage) were used to analyze the data.
Results: The results showed that 61% of emergency medical staff had experienced workplace violence in the past year, which was 54.3% verbal violence, 19.3% physical violence, 18% ethnic violence, and 10% sexual violence. In response to all types of workplace violence experienced, emergency medical staff often invited the attacker to calm down, and the reason for not reporting the incident from their viewpoint was the futility of reporting. Also, most were very dissatisfied with how the reported incidents were handled.
Conclusion: Emergency medical staff are exposed to high levels of violence. Therefore, it is necessary to have the essential fields to reduce and prevent violence in the workplace and increase the security of these employees, such as training the general public in the profession of emergency medicine and stressful working conditions, developing a system for reporting and handling violent incidents, and explanation of the support systems for the victims should be provided.
Full-Text [PDF 523 kb]   (184 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: پرستاری

1. Hosseinikia SH, Zarei S, Najafi Kalyani M, Tahamtan S. A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study of Workplace Violence against Prehospital Emergency Medical Technicians. Emerg Med Int 2018;2018:7835676. [DOI:10.1155/2018/7835676] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Sheikhbardsiri H, Afshar PJ, Baniasadi H, Farokhzadian J. Workplace Violence Against Prehospital Paramedic Personnel (City and Road) and Factors Related to This Type of Violence in Iran. J Interpers Violence 2020:886260520967127. [DOI:10.1177/0886260520967127] [PMID]
3. Wang P-Y, Fang P-H, Wu C-L, Hsu H-C, Lin C-H. Workplace violence in Asian emergency medical services: a pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16(20):3936. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph16203936] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. World Health Organization. Framework guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector: the training manual. Geneva International Labour Organization; 2005. [URL]
5. Dalvand S, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Najafi F, Zahednezhad H, Sayehmiri K. The prevalence of workplace violence against iranian nurses: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Shiraz EMed J 2018;19(9). [DOI:10.5812/semj.65923]
6. Choi SH, Lee H. Workplace violence against nurses in Korea and its impact on professional quality of life and turnover intention. J Nurs Manag 2017;25(7):508-18. [DOI:10.1111/jonm.12488] [PMID]
7. Lindquist B, Koval K, Mahadevan A, Gennosa C, Leggio W, Niknam K, et al. Workplace violence among prehospital care providers in India: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2019;9(11):e033404. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033404] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Murray RM, Davis AL, Shepler LJ, Moore-Merrell L, Troup WJ, Allen JA, et al. A systematic review of workplace violence against emergency medical services responders. New Solut 2020;29(4):487-503. [DOI:10.1177/1048291119893388] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Shi L, Wang L, Jia X, Li Z, Mu H, Liu X, et al. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2017;7(7):e016810. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016810] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Al-Qadi MM. Workplace violence in nursing: A concept analysis. J Occup Health 2021;63(1):e12226-e. [DOI:10.1002/1348-9585.12226] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Bordignon M, Monteiro MI. Analysis of workplace violence against nursing professionals and possibilities for prevention. Rev Gaucha Enferm 2021;42:e20190406. [DOI:10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20190406] [PMID]
12. van Reemst L, Fischer TF. Experiencing external workplace violence: Differences in indicators between three types of emergency responders. J Int Viol 2019;34(9):1864-89. [DOI:10.1177/0886260516657913] [PMID]
13. Pien LC, Cheng Y, Cheng WJ. Internal Workplace Violence From Colleagues Is More Strongly Associated With Poor Health Outcomes In Nurses Than Violence From Patients And Families. J Adv Nurs 2019;75(4):793-800. [DOI:10.1111/jan.13887] [PMID]
14. Niu S-F, Shu-Fen K, Tsai H-T, Ching-Chiu K, Traynor V, Chou K-R. Prevalence Of Workplace Violent Episodes Experienced By Nurses In Acute Psychiatric Settings. PLoS One 2019;14(1):e0211183. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0211183] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Dehghan-Chaloshtari S, Ghodousi A. Factors and characteristics of workplace violence against nurses: a study in Iran. J Interpers Viol 2020;35(1-2):496-509. [DOI:10.1177/0886260516683175] [PMID]
16. Jeong IY, Kim JS. The relationship between intention to leave the hospital and coping methods of emergency nurses after workplace violence. J Clin Nurs 2018;27(7-8):1692-701. [DOI:10.1111/jocn.14228] [PMID]
17. Liu J, Gan Y, Jiang H, Li L, Dwyer R, Lu K, et al. Prevalence of workplace violence against healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med 2019;76(12):927-37. [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2019-105849] [PMID]
18. Alhusain F, Aloqalaa M, Alrusayyis D, Alshehri K, Wazzan S, Alwelyee N, et al. Workplace violence against healthcare providers in emergency departments in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Emerg Med 2020;1(1):5-14. [DOI:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1571404869]
19. Al‐Maskari S, Al‐Busaidi I, Al‐Maskari M. Workplace violence against emergency department nurses in Oman: a cross‐sectional multi‐institutional study. Int Nurs Rev 2020;67(2):249-57. [DOI:10.1111/inr.12574] [PMID]
20. Afkhamzadeh A, Azadi N-A, Farahmandian Z, Mohamadi-Bolbanabad A. Prevalence of Workplace Violence of Emergency Medical Staff and Relevant Factors in Sanandaj, Iran in 2016. Sci J Nurs Midwifery Paramed Fac 2018;4(1):71-80. [Google Scholar]
21. Adedokun M. Workplace Violence in the Healthcare Sector. A review of the Literature. Malmö, Sweden: Malmö University; 2020. [Google Scholar]
22. Acquadro Maran D. Workplace violence: Prevalence, risk factors and preventive measures across the globe. J Health Soc Sci 2020;5(1):013-22. [Google Scholar]
23. Liu J, Zheng J, Liu K, Liu X, Wu Y, Wang J, et al. Workplace violence against nurses, job satisfaction, burnout, and patient safety in Chinese hospitals. Nurs Outlook 2019;67(5):558-66. [DOI:10.1016/j.outlook.2019.04.006] [PMID]
24. Li N, Zhang L, Xiao G, Chen J, Lu Q. The relationship between workplace violence, job satisfaction and turnover intention in emergency nurses. Int Emerg Nurs 2019;45:50-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.ienj.2019.02.001] [PMID]
25. Hassankhani H, Parizad N, Gacki-Smith J, Rahmani A, Mohammadi E. The consequences of violence against nurses working in the emergency department: A qualitative study. Int Emerg Nurs 2018;39:20-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.ienj.2017.07.007] [PMID]
26. Najafi F, Fallahi‐Khoshknab M, Ahmadi F, Dalvandi A, Rahgozar M. Antecedents and consequences of workplace violence against nurses: A qualitative study. J Clin Nurs 2018;27(1-2):e116-e28. [DOI:10.1111/jocn.13884] [PMID]
27. Maguire BJ, O'Neill BJ. Emergency medical service personnel's risk from violence while serving the community. Am J Public Health 2017;107(11):1770-5. [DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303989] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. Educ Psychol Meas 1970;30(3):607-10. [DOI:10.1177/001316447003000308]
29. Aghjanloo A, Harririan H, Ghafurifard M. Violence during clinical training among nursing students of Zanjan universities of medical sciences. Iran J Nurs Res 2010;5(17):46-54. [Google Scholar]
30. Esmaeilpour M, Salsali M, Ahmadi F. Workplace violence against Iranian nurses working in emergency departments. Int Nurs Rev 2011;58(1):130-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2010.00834.x] [PMID]
31. Wang PY, Fang PH, Wu CL, Hsu HC, Lin CH. Workplace Violence in Asian Emergency Medical Services: A Pilot Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16(20). [DOI:10.3390/ijerph16203936] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Lindquist B, Koval K, Mahadevan A, Gennosa C, Leggio W, Niknam K, et al. Workplace violence among prehospital care providers in India: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2019;9(11):e033404. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033404] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Alireza B, Peyman S, Mahdi R, Pirhossein K, Parisa H-S, Maryam B. Frequency and types of workplace violence against emergency medical technicians: a cross-sectional study in Tehran, Iran. Front Emerg Med 2022;6(4). [Google Scholar]
34. Bozorgi F, Laali A, Khademloo M, Ehteshami S, Assadi T, Pashaie SM, et al. Incidence and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence against Pre Hospital Staffs in Mazandaran; North of Iran. Int J Med Invest 2018;7(4):15-20. [Google Scholar]
35. Amini R, Mohammadi N, Karaji F, Tapak L. Frequency of the Type of Workplace Violence Against Hamadan Medical Emergency Technicians and Its Relationship with Individual and Occupational Variables, 2018. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care 2020;27(6):381-93. [DOI:10.30699/ajnmc.27.6.381]
36. Yadollahi S, Heydarpoor S, Fereidooni M. Prevalence of Workplace Violence of Emergency Medical Staff and Relevant Factors in Chaharmahal-Bakhtyari Province in 2020. Paramed Sci Milit Health 2022;16(4):35-42. [Google Scholar]
37. Maghami M, Aghababaeian H, Saadati M. Evaluation of Physical Violence against Emergency Personnel at Work in 2013. Sadra Med J 2014;2(4):379-88. [Google Scholar]
38. Rahmani A, Dadashzadeh A, Namdar H, Akbari M, Elahbakhshiyan A. Assessing workplace violence toward EMS' personnel in prehospital settings of East Azerbaijan Province. Iran J Forensic Med 2009;15(2):100-7. [URL]
39. Koohestani HR, Baghcheghi N, Rezaei K, Abedi A, Seraji A, Zand S. Occupational Violence in Nursing Students in Arak, Iran. Iran J Epidemiol 2011;7(2):44-50. [Google Scholar]
40. Rosenthal LJ, Byerly A, Taylor AD, Martinovich Z. Impact and Prevalence of Physical and Verbal Violence Toward Healthcare Workers. Psychosomatics 2018;59(6):584-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.psym.2018.04.007] [PMID]
41. Chiou S-T, Chiang J-H, Huang N, Wu C-H, Chien L-Y. Health issues among nurses in Taiwanese hospitals: National survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2013;50(10):1377-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.01.012] [PMID]
42. Bigham BL, Jensen JL, Tavares W, Drennan IR, Saleem H, Dainty KN, et al. Paramedic self-reported exposure to violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace: a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey. Prehosp Emerg Care 2014;18(4):489-94. [DOI:10.3109/10903127.2014.912703] [PMID]
43. Maguire BJ, O'Meara P, O'Neill BJ, Brightwell R. Violence against emergency medical services personnel: A systematic review of the literature. Am J Ind Med 2018;61(2):167-80. [DOI:10.1002/ajim.22797] [PMID]
44. Du M, Wang X, Yin S, Shu W, Hao R, Zhao S, et al. De-escalation techniques for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;4(4):Cd009922. [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009922.pub2] [PMID]
45. Suserud BO, Blomquist M, Johansson I. Experiences of threats and violence in the Swedish ambulance service. Accid Emerg Nurs 2002;10(3):127-35. [DOI:10.1054/aaen.2002.0361] [PMID]
46. Alharthy N, Mutairi M, Alsahli A, Alshehri A, Almatrafi A, Mahah A, et al. Workplace violence among emergency medical services workers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Hospital Admin 2017;6:26. [DOI:10.5430/jha.v6n3p26]
47. Viottini E, Politano G, Fornero G, Pavanelli PL, Borelli P, Bonaudo M, et al. Determinants of aggression against all health care workers in a large-sized university hospital. BMC Health Serv Res 2020;20(1):215. [DOI:10.1186/s12913-020-05084-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. Wu S, Zhu W, Li H, Lin S, Chai W, Wang X. Workplace violence and influencing factors among medical professionals in China. Am J Ind Med 2012;55(11):1000-8. [DOI:10.1002/ajim.22097] [PMID]
49. Shields M, Wilkins K. Factors related to on-the-job abuse of nurses by patients. Health Rep 2009;20(2):7. [Google Scholar]
50. Sheikh-Bardsiri H, Eskandarzadeh S, Aminizadeh M, Sarhadi M, Khademipour G, Mousavi M. The Frequency of Violence in Workplace against Emergency Care Personnel in Kerman, Iran, and the Factors Affecting the Occurrence. J Manag Med Inf Sch 2013;1(2):117-1. [Google Scholar]
51. Pourshaikhian M, Abolghasem Gorji H, Aryankhesal A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Barati A. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel. Arch Trauma Res 2016;5(1):e28734. [DOI:10.5812/atr.28734] [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Nursing And Midwifery Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb