Volume 21, Issue 1 (April 2023)                   Nursing and Midwifery Journal 2023, 21(1): 25-36 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

URL: http://unmf.umsu.ac.ir/article-1-4815-en.html
1- Master's student in counseling in midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
2- Professor of Midwifery, Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran (Corresponding Author) , soheila80@yahoo.com
3- Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
Abstract:   (410 Views)
Background & Aim: Women gain important experiences during birthing which will remain with them throughout their lives. Fear of childbirth, both during pregnancy and after childbirth, leads to negative experiences of childbirth. On the other hand, ethnicity can play a role in increasing or decreasing pregnancy outcomes and experiences. This study aimed to compare childbirth experiences and fear of childbirth in two ethnicities, Kurdish and Turkish women, in Naqdeh.
Materials & Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 630 pregnant women with Kurdish and Turkish ethnic groups referred to Comprehensive Health Centers in Naqd in 2021. The data collection tool was a demographic questionnaire, Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (WDEQ) versions A and B, and Childbirth Experience questionnaire. To conduct the study, in each center the list of pregnant women is extracted by the Sib system; and then, the questionnaires were completed through telephone interviews. Completing the questionnaires were done in two stages. In the first stage, the WDEQ versions A was completed from 32-36 weeks of pregnancy in both groups. In the second stage, which was done one month after giving birth, the the WDEQ versions B was completed. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software, and using descriptive statistical tests, Mann-Whitney test, paired t test, independent t test, and correlation coefficient test.
Results: The difference in the mean score of fear of childbirth before and after delivery between two groups of Turkish and Kurdish pregnant women was statistically significant at the level of 0.05%, as the average score of fear of childbirth in Kurdish women was lower than that of Turkish women. The average score of childbirth experience in the group of Kurdish women (67.87 ± 4.26) was much higher than the group of Turkish women (55.69 ± 5.88). The average score of childbirth experience had an inverse correlation with the fear of childbirth before and after childbirth, which was significant at the error level of 0.05. The greater the fear before and after delivery, the more negative the delivery experience.
Conclusion: There is an inverse and significant correlation between the intensity of fear of childbirth and the experience gained from the childbirth process in primiparous women. The mean experience and fear of childbirth among Kurdish and Turkish pregnant women have differed. It seems that the experience and fear of childbirth in women is influenced by several factors such as ethnic, cultural, social, and environmental influences.
Full-Text [PDF 748 kb]   (271 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: مامایی

1. Waldenström U, Hildingsson I, Rubertsson C, Rådestad I. A negative birth experience: prevalence and risk factors in a national sample. Birth 2004;31(1):17-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.1997.00017.pp.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0730-7659.2004.0270.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-536X.1997.tb00332.x] [PMID]
2. Wilde‐Larsson B, Larsson G, Kvist LJ, Sandin‐Bojö AK. Womens' opinions on intrapartal care: development of a theory‐based questionnaire. J Clin Nurs 2010;19(11):1748-60. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03055.x] [PMID]
3. Larkin P, Begley CM, Devane D. Women's experiences of labour and birth: an evolutionary concept analysis. Midwifery 2009;25(2):e49-e59. [DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2007.07.010] [PMID]
4. Nieminen K, Wijma K, Johansson S, Kinberger EK, Ryding EL, Andersson G, et al. Severe fear of childbirth indicates high perinatal costs for Swedish women giving birth to their first child. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2017;96(4):438-46. [DOI:10.1111/aogs.13091] [PMID]
5. Størksen HT, Garthus-Niegel S, Adams SS, Vangen S, Eberhard-Gran M. Fear of childbirth and elective caesarean section: a population-based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015;15(1):1-10. [DOI:10.1186/s12884-015-0655-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Wijma K, Wijma B, Zar M. Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ; a new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 1998;19(2):84-97. [DOI:10.3109/01674829809048501] [PMID]
7. Rondung E, Thomtén J, Sundin Ö. Psychological perspectives on fear of childbirth. J Anxiety Disord 2016;44:80-91. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.10.007] [PMID]
8. Rouhe H, Salmela-Aro K, Toivanen R, Tokola M, Halmesmäki E, Ryding E-L, et al. Group psychoeducation with relaxation for severe fear of childbirth improves maternal adjustment and childbirth experience-a randomised controlled trial. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2015;36(1):1-9. [DOI:10.3109/0167482X.2014.980722] [PMID]
9. Al Ahmar E, Tarraf S. Assessment of the socio-demographic factors associated with the satisfaction related to the childbirth experience. Open J Obstet Gynecol 2014;2014. [DOI:10.4236/ojog.2014.410083]
10. Van der Gucht N, Lewis K. Women׳ s experiences of coping with pain during childbirth: a critical review of qualitative research. Midwifery 2015;31(3):349-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2014.12.005] [PMID]
11. Ketting E, Esin A. Integrating sexual and reproductive health in primary health care in Europe: position paper of the European Forum for Primary Care. Qual Prim Care 2010;18(4):269-82. [Google Scholar]
12. ten Hoope-Bender P, de Bernis L, Campbell J, Downe S, Fauveau V, Fogstad H, et al. Improvement of maternal and newborn health through midwifery. Lancet 2014;384(9949):1226-35. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60930-2] [PMID]
13. Baas CI, Wiegers TA, de Cock TP, Erwich JJH, Spelten ER, de Boer MR, et al. Client‐related factors associated with a "less than Good" experience of midwifery care during childbirth in the Netherlands. Birth 2017;44(1):58-67. [DOI:10.1111/birt.12266] [PMID]
14. Liebler CA, Porter SR, Fernandez LE, Noon JM, Ennis SR. America's churning races: Race and ethnicity response changes between census 2000 and the 2010 census. Demography 2017;54(1):259-84. [DOI:10.1007/s13524-016-0544-0] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Abasi Z, Keshavarz Z, Abbasi-Shavazi MJ, Ebadi A, Esmaily H, Poorbarat S. Comparative Study of Reproductive Behaviors in Two Ethnicities of Fars and Turkmen in North Khorasan, Iran. J Midw Reprod Health 2022;10(1):3109-18. [Google Scholar]
16. Zanjani H NM. Investigating Ethnic Differences and their Impact on Female Fertility in Iran. UNESCO Joint Project and Population Division of Iran Center for Urban Studies and Research. 1996.
17. https://fa.wikipedia.org/. [URL]
18. Kominiarek MA, VanVeldhuisen P, Hibbard J, Landy H, Haberman S, Learman L, et al. The maternal body mass index: a strong association with delivery route. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203(3):264. e1-. e7. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2010.06.024] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Whitehead NS, Callaghan W, Johnson C, Williams L. Racial, ethnic, and economic disparities in the prevalence of pregnancy complications. Matern Child Health J 2009;13:198-205. [DOI:10.1007/s10995-008-0344-2] [PMID]
20. Bricker L, Lavender T. Parenteral opioids for labor pain relief: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(5):S94-S109. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-9378(02)70185-3]
21. Heydarpour S, Zare E, Heidarpour F. Comparison of primipara's women perception of pain, fear and anxiety of vaginal delivery among Persian, Kurdish and Turkish women. J Clin Res Paramed Sci 2015;4(3):223-30. [Google Scholar]
22. Moradi M, Nazi A, Mazloumi E. Prevalence and Causes Related to Fear of Vaginal Delivery in Iran: A Systematic Review. Iran J Nurs Res 2022;17(1):43-53. [Google Scholar]
23. Aziken M, Omo-Aghoja L, Okonofua F. Perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women towards caesarean section in urban Nigeria. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007;86(1):42-7. [DOI:10.1080/00016340600994950] [PMID]
24. Althabe F, Belizán JM. Caesarean section: the paradox. The Lancet 2006;368(9546):1472-3. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69616-5] [PMID]
25. Shiao S-YPK, Andrews CM, Helmreich RJ. Maternal race/ethnicity and predictors of pregnancy and infant outcomes. Biol Res Nurs 2005;7(1):55-66. [DOI:10.1177/1099800405278265] [PMID]
26. Organization WH. World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs sustainable development goals: World Health Organization; 2016. [URL]
27. Mukamurigo JU, Berg M, Ntaganira J, Nyirazinyoye L, Dencker A. Associations between perceptions of care and women's childbirth experience: a population-based cross-sectional study in Rwanda. BMC Pregn Childbirth 2017;17:1-7. [DOI:10.1186/s12884-017-1363-z] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Loeser JD, Melzack R. Pain: an overview. Lancet 1999;353(9164):1607-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01311-2] [PMID]
29. Rijnders M, Baston H, Schönbeck Y, Van Der Pal K, Prins M, Green J, et al. Perinatal factors related to negative or positive recall of birth experience in women 3 years postpartum in the Netherlands. Birth 2008;35(2):107-16. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2008.00223.x] [PMID]
30. Sargent C, Bascope G. Ways of knowing about birth in three cultures. Med Anthropol Q 1996;10(2):213-36. [DOI:10.1525/maq.1996.10.2.02a00070] [PMID]
31. Small R, Rice PL, Yelland J, Lumley J. Mothers in a new country: the role of culture and communication in Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino women's experiences of giving birth in Australia. Women Health 1999;28(3):77-101. [DOI:10.1300/J013v28n03_06] [PMID]
32. Heydarpour S, Zare E, Heidarpour F. Comparison of primipara's women perception of pain, fear and anxiety of vaginal delivery among Persian, Kurdish and Turkish women. J Clin Res Paramed Sci 2015;4(3):223-30. [Google Scholar]
33. Mortazavi F. Validity and reliability of the Farsi version of Wijma delivery expectancy questionnaire: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Electron Phys 2017;9(6):4606. [DOI:10.19082/4606] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Abbaspoor Z, Moghaddam-Banaem L, Ronaghi S, Dencker A. Translation and cultural adaptation of the childbirth experience questionnaire (CEQ) in Iran. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2019;24(4):296. [PMCID]
35. Okumus F, Sahin N. Fear of childbirth in urban and rural regions of Turkey: Comparison of two resident populations. North Clin Istanb 2017;4(3):247. [DOI:10.14744/nci.2017.46693] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Elvander C, Cnattingius S, Kjerulff KH. Birth experience in women with low, intermediate or high levels of fear: findings from the first baby study. Birth 2013;40(4):289-96. [DOI:10.1111/birt.12065] [PMID] [PMCID]
37. Haines H, Pallant JF, Karlström A, Hildingsson I. Cross-cultural comparison of levels of childbirth-related fear in an Australian and Swedish sample. Midwifery 2011;27(4):560-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2010.05.004] [PMID]
38. Sluijs A-M, Wijma K, Cleiren MP, van Lith JM, Wijma B. Preferred and actual mode of delivery in relation to fear of childbirth. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 2020;41(4):266-74. [DOI:10.1080/0167482X.2019.1708319] [PMID]
39. Roberts V. Impact of Birth Experience on Bonding and Perceived Attachment: A Qualitative Study of the Subjective Experience of Birth. Alliant Int Univ 2018. [Google Scholar]
40. Bagheri A, Alavi NM, Abbaszadeh F. Iranian obstetricians' views about the factors that influence pregnant women's choice of delivery method: A qualitative study. Women Birth 2013;26(1):e45-e9. [DOI:10.1016/j.wombi.2012.09.004] [PMID]
41. Cicek O, Mete S. Women's Expectations from Delivery Nurses of Vaginal Birth: A Qualitative Study. International J Caring Sci 2018;11(2):831. [Google Scholar]
42. Thomson GM, Downe S. Changing the future to change the past: women's experiences of a positive birth following a traumatic birth experience. J Reprod Infant Psychol 2010;28(1):102-12. [DOI:10.1080/02646830903295000]
43. Lukasse M, Schei B, Ryding EL, Group BS. Prevalence and associated factors of fear of childbirth in six European countries. Sex Reprod Healthcare 2014;5(3):99-106. [DOI:10.1016/j.srhc.2014.06.007] [PMID]
44. Mathur VA, Morris T, McNamara K. Cultural conceptions of Women's labor pain and labor pain management: A mixed-method analysis. Soc Sci Med 2020;261:113240. [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113240] [PMID]
45. Akadri AA, Odelola OI. Labour pain perception: experiences of Nigerian mothers. The Pan African Medical Journal 2018;30. [DOI:10.11604/pamj.2018.30.288.16672] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. Redshaw M, Heikkilä K. Ethnic differences in women's worries about labour and birth. Ethnicity & health 2011;16(3):213-23. [DOI:10.1080/13557858.2011.561302] [PMID]
47. Henderson J GH, Redshaw M. Severity of labor pain and duration of labor in Afghan and Pakistani women: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups. BMC Pregn Childbirth 2017;13:1-14. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-196] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. Mahmood K. Labour and birth experiences and awareness of pain relief among Kurdish women: University of Sheffield; 2016. [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Nursing And Midwifery Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb